Pig farmers knowledge, attitude and practices towards antimicrobial use and awareness level of AMR in Kenya
Cameline Mwai, Kenya Veterinary Services, Kenya
Pig production in Kenya is faced with several challenges including free ranging and backyard production systems which raises pigs mainly for local consumption. These practices have often been associated with health challenges. This cross sectional questionnaire based study targeted pig farmers delivering pigs to a leading export slaughterhouse in Nairobi, Kenya. Three hundred questionnaires were administered between November 2018 and January 2019. Ninety-two out of three hundred (31%) response rate was achieved. The study concludes that the awareness level on prudent antimicrobial use and on dangers of antimicrobial resistance among pig farmers is low, most of the pig farmers were found to have some form of formal education making it easy to be trained on the issue. More focus should therefore be channelled towards promotion of preventive practices such as vaccination, biosecurity and better feeding, helping to reduce the number of infections on the farm and eventually the use of antimicrobials to curb diseases. Initial training targeting over 50 farmers has been carried out and will be continued through direct trainings and those done by extension officers reached through this project.
Improve the quality and safety of milk and milk products by reducing antibiotics residues in milk to enhance their livelihood (a case study Of Masaai women)
Beatrice Mgaya Kilima, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania
Milk production in Tanzania is carried out under traditional and commercial dairy production systems. Seventy percent of the milk produced in the country comes from the traditional sector in rural areas. The potential risk of milk contamination by spoilage and pathogenic microbes, as well as other contaminant agents (such as adulterants and antimicrobial drug residues) is high for milk produced and handled in the informal channels. In situations where withdrawal periods are not observed drug residues in milk is likely to occur. The objective of this project was to improve the quality of milk and milk products by reducing antibiotics residues in milk. To achieve this, farmers knowledge on cattle keeping, use of antibiotics and hygienic milking and handling and storage were assessed and subsequently trainings designed based on the results. The study shows that most participating Maasai families did not clean the cow’s udder sufficiently. Plastic containers were used for milk. The included communities were trained on proper use of antibiotics as well as hygienic handling and storage of milk. Awareness on the importance of hygienic production conditions and on zoonotic diseases were increased.
Surveillance and Monitoring of Antimicrobial Resistance in Veterinary Laboratory in Eastern Tanzania
Emmanuel Laurent Mayenga, Tanzania Veterinary Laboratory Agency, Tanzania
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global One health problem threatening the health of animals and humans. Surveillance of AMR is important in order to estimate the size of the problem, to identify targets for measures and to evaluate the effect of implemented measures. The present study was conducted to investigate how samples submitted to the national veterinary laboratory in Tanzania could be used in surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in animals. This was done by looking at samples submitted for bacterial culture and antibiotic sensitivity testing (AST) in the time period 2010-2017. In total, 4157 samples were submitted for bacterial culture, of these 3571 were milk samples collected from cows, 555 avian samples obtained from live or dead chicken, and 31 samples were collected from other animal species. Only 430 (10%) of all the samples were tested for antibiotic susceptibility. The most frequently isolated bacteria were Micrococcus spp, E. coli, Salmonella spp, Staphylococcus spp, Enterobacter spp, and Bacillus spp. The use of diagnostics and detection of drug susceptibility is important to support rational clinical decision algorithms for sustainable use of antimicrobials and improved tracking of AMR.
Implementation of the National Action Plan for the surveillance of antibiotic resistance in animal health in Uganda
Rekuma Sam, Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries, Uganda
The objective with the project was to assess antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from animal, animal derived products and feed, generate reliable data, start implementing the National Action Plan against antimicrobial resistance (AMR) adopted in 2018 as well as the AMR surveillance program. A training was conducted for field veterinarians and laboratory technicians on bacterial isolation and AMR testing. Samples were collected and laboratory analyses performed. Resistance to several groups of antibiotics was found in many common bacteria. Through the sampling hygiene problem was detected in both abattoir and milk collecting centre. Need for resources in order to perform accurate analyses at laboratories and to implement the surveillance system was also identified.
Monitoring the indicators of milk quality at selected small dairy farm in Western Uganda: a case control study
Esther Nabatta, Infectious Disease Institute-National Animal Disease Diagnostic and Epidemiology Centre, Uganda
The objective of the project was to monitor the indicators of milk quality at selected dairy farms in Western Uganda, determine the prevalence of Staph. Aureus and E. Coli in milk as well as their resistance patterns and the use of antibiotics at the farms. A pilot study was therefore conducted with 21 collected milk samples for analysis of somatic cell count and bacterial cultures. To get an overview over the use of antibiotics, biohazard bags with used bottles of drugs were collected from two farms, which showed that antibiotics and antiparasitic drugs are the most used drugs. The most common used antibiotic was Oxytetracycline.
Creating awareness about veterinary drug residues in milk amongst dairy farmers in Mbarara district, Uganda
Josephine Namayanja, Ministry of Agriculture Animal Industry and Fisheries, Uganda
This project aimed to assess dairy farmers’ knowledge, attitude and practices regarding veterinary drug residues as well as conducting training of farmers on proper use of veterinary drugs and the benefits of producing milk free from drug residues. A baseline survey with interviews of six farmers was conducted for the assessment. The survey showed that most of the farmers had knowledge about withdrawal periods and residues, but that withdrawal periods are not fully respected leading to consumption of milk with antibiotic residues. In the future training of farmers on prudent use of antibiotics and other veterinary drugs will be conducted.